Sarcoidosis, role of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and other biologic agents, past, present, and future concepts

Clin Dermatol. May-Jun 2007;25(3):341-6. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2007.03.012.


Tumor necrosis factor is a potent cytokine involved in the inflammatory process of many diseases. Agents that block tumor necrosis factor have been used in the treatment of various immune-mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Tumor necrosis factor plays a major role in the inflammatory process seen in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis therapies with activity against tumor necrosis factor and specific anti-tumor necrosis factor therapies have been used with variable success. The long-term safety and efficacy of such therapies are yet to be determined in well-designed clinical trials with long-term follow-up.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Etanercept
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use
  • Infliximab
  • Mouth Diseases / drug therapy
  • Mouth Diseases / etiology
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use
  • Sarcoidosis / drug therapy*
  • Sarcoidosis / physiopathology*
  • Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • Skin Diseases / etiology*
  • Skin Ulcer / drug therapy
  • Skin Ulcer / etiology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Infliximab
  • Etanercept