Correlations of random binary sequences with pre-stated operator intention: a review of a 12-year program

Explore (NY). May-Jun 2007;3(3):244-53, 341-3. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2007.03.009.


Strong correlations between output distribution means of a variety of random binary processes and pre-stated intentions of some 100 individual human operators have been established over a 12-year experimental program. More than 1000 experimental series, employing four different categories of random devices and several distinctive protocols, show comparable magnitudes of anomalous mean shifts from chance expectation, with similar distribution structures. Although the absolute effect sizes are quite small, of the order of 10(-4) bits deviation per bit processed, over the huge databases accumulated, the composite effect exceeds 7sigma (p approximately 3.5 x 10(-13)). These data display significant disparities between female and male operator performances, and consistent serial position effects in individual and collective results. Data generated by operators far removed from the machines and exerting their efforts at times other than those of machine operation show similar effect sizes and structural details to those of the local, on-time experiments. Most other secondary parameters tested are found to have little effect on the scale and character of the results, with one important exception: studies performed using fully deterministic pseudorandom sources, either hard-wired or algorithmic, yield null overall mean shifts, and display no other anomalous features.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Consciousness*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laboratories
  • Male
  • Mental Healing
  • Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical*
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Models, Statistical*
  • New Jersey
  • ROC Curve
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Research Design*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Telepathy*
  • Universities