TNF-induced activation of the Nox1 NADPH oxidase and its role in the induction of necrotic cell death

Mol Cell. 2007 Jun 8;26(5):675-87. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2007.04.021.


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine in immunity and inflammation and induces many cellular responses, including apoptosis and necrosis. TNF signaling enables the generation of superoxide in phagocytic and vascular cells through the activation of the NADPH oxidase Nox2/gp91. Here we show that TNF also activates the Nox1 NADPH oxidase in mouse fibroblasts when cells undergo necrosis. TNF treatment induces the formation of a signaling complex containing TRADD, RIP1, Nox1, and the small GTPase Rac1. TNF-treated RIP1-deficient fibroblasts fail to form such a complex, indicating that RIP1 is essential for Nox1 recruitment. Moreover, the prevention of TNF-induced superoxide generation with dominant-negative mutants of TRADD or Rac1, as well as knockdown of Nox1 using siRNA, inhibits necrosis. Thus our study suggests that activation of Nox1 through forming a complex with TNF signaling components plays a key role in TNF-induced necrotic cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole / pharmacology
  • Cell Death / drug effects*
  • Cell Death / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / chemistry
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • NADPH Oxidase 1
  • Necrosis
  • Neuropeptides / chemistry
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • Signal Transduction
  • Superoxides / metabolism
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein / chemistry
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology*
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein


  • Antioxidants
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Neuropeptides
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Rac1 protein, mouse
  • Ralbp1 protein, mouse
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein
  • Tradd protein, mouse
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Superoxides
  • Butylated Hydroxyanisole
  • NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases
  • NADPH Oxidase 1
  • NOX1 protein, mouse
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein