Confirmatory factor analysis of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale

Psychol Addict Behav. 2007 Jun;21(2):216-25. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.21.2.216.


The authors examined the factor structure of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) using confirmatory factor analysis in 3 clinical research samples of smokers trying to quit (N = 723). Three confirmatory factor analytic models, based on previous research, were tested with each of the 3 study samples at multiple points in time. A unidimensional model including all 8 MNWS items was found to be the best explanation of the data. This model produced fair to good internal consistency estimates. Additionally, these data revealed that craving should be included in the total score of the MNWS. Factor scores derived from this single-factor, 8-item model showed that increases in withdrawal were associated with poor smoking outcome for 2 of the clinical studies. Confirmatory factor analyses of change scores showed that the MNWS symptoms cohere as a syndrome over time. Future investigators should report a total score using all of the items from the MNWS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minnesota
  • Nicotine / adverse effects*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology*
  • Syndrome
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / physiopathology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology


  • Nicotine