Associations between particulate sulfate and organic carbon exposures and heart rate variability in patients with or at risk for cardiovascular diseases

J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Jun;49(6):610-7. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318058205b.


Objective: It is still unknown whether specific components in fine particles are associated with heart rate variability (HRV) reduction.

Methods: We recruited 46 patients with or at risk for cardiovascular diseases to measure 24-hour HRV by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Fixed-site air-monitoring stations were used to represent participants' exposures to particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM 10) and 2.5 microm (PM2.5), and particulate components of sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon, and gaseous pollutants.

Results: We found that HRV reduction was associated with sulfate, OC, and PM2.5 but not with the other five pollutants in single-pollutant models. Sulfate was found to remain in significant association with HRV reduction adjusting for OC and PM2.5 in three-pollutant models.

Conclusions: Exposures to sulfate and OC in PM2.5 were associated with HRV reduction in patients with or at risk for cardiovascular diseases.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carbon / adverse effects*
  • Carbon / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Heart Rate / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Particulate Matter / adverse effects*
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Risk*
  • Sulfates / adverse effects*
  • Sulfates / analysis
  • Taiwan


  • Particulate Matter
  • Sulfates
  • Carbon