To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer (PCA) dissemination and to develop new anti-metastasis therapies, key regulatory molecules involved in PCA metastasis were identified in two human androgen-independent PCA cell lines, highly metastatic 1E8-H and lowly metastatic 2B4-L cells. Through 2-DE and MS analyses, 12 proteins with different expression levels in the two cell lines were identified. The following proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated in 1E8-H cells compared with 2B4-L cells: gp96 precursor, calreticulin precursor, vimentin (VIM), Hsp90alpha, peroxiredoxin 2, HNRPH1, ezrin, T-complex protein 1, alpha subunit, and hypothetical protein mln2339. In contrast, heart L-lactate dehydrogenase H chain, annexin I, and protein disulfide isomerase were notably down-regulated in 1E8-H cells compared with 2B4-L cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of VIM expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA.