An analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acetaldehyde in wine samples. The method utilizes headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization using O-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine and quantification by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The technique showed good sensitivity and reproducibility in samples of Chardonnay, Petite Sirah, and Merlot wines containing acetaldehyde at levels below the sensory threshold (40-100 ppm). The method was used to monitor acetaldehyde concentrations during the micro-oxygenation of Merlot wine in a 141 L pilot-plant experiment and a 2400 L full-scale study. In both experiments, levels of acetaldehyde remained constant for several weeks before increasing at rates of the order of 1 ppm/day. Variations in the levels of acetaldehyde present are discussed within the context of the underlying chemical reactions.