Background: Hypoxia plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic renal disease. Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) levels reflect the clinical prognosis of chronic renal disease. The calcium channel blocker azelnidipine has anti-oxidative properties and these may contribute to the beneficial effects of this drug. The aim of the present study was to determine whether azelnidipine and/or amlodipine affected urinary protein excretion or the urinary levels of 8-OHdG and L-FABP in hypertensive patients with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Methods: Thirty moderately hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: azelnidipine 16 mg once daily or amlodipine 5 mg once daily. Treatment was continued for 6 months. Urinary protein excretion and urinary levels of 8-OHdG and urinary L-FABP were measured before 3 and 6 months after the treatment period.
Results: Both drugs exhibited comparable and significant effects on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Azelnidipine decreased heart rate significantly after 3 and 6 months whereas amlodipine increased it significantly after 3 and 6 months. Urinary protein excretion, urinary 8-OHdG and urinary L-FABP levels decreased significantly after 3 months (p < 0.05) and 6 months (p < 0.05) in the azelnidipine group. In contrast, amlodipine showed little effect on urinary protein excretion or the urinary levels of 8-OHdG and L-FABP throughout the experimental period.
Conclusions: Azelnidipine is renoprotective in hypertensive patients with mild CKD and this action is, at least in part, due to the anti-oxidative effect.