Seizure induction in laboratory animals is followed by many changes in structure and function, and one of these is an increase in neurogenesis-the birth of new neurons. This phenomenon may be relevant to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), because one of the regions of the brain where seizure-induced neurogenesis is most robust is the dentate gyrus-an area of the brain that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TLE. Although initial studies predicted that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus would be important to normal functions, such as learning and memory, the new neurons that are born after seizures may not necessarily promote normal function. There appears to be a complex functional and structural relationship between the new dentate gyrus neurons and preexisting cells, both in the animal models of TLE and in tissue resected from patients with intractable TLE. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms of TLE, and suggest novel strategies for intervention that could be used to prevent or treat TLE.