Aims: Germline mutations in the TP53 tumour suppressor gene are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which is characterised by a spectrum of neoplasms occurring in children and young adults that predominantly include early-onset breast cancer, a variety of sarcomas, brain tumours and adrenocortical tumours. The identification of patients carrying TP53 mutations is primarily based on a positive family history of these early-onset characteristic cancer types. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of TP53 molecular testing in patients with very early onset breast cancer and no family history of cancer.
Materials and methods: A young woman with no family history of cancer presented with bilateral breast cancer at the age of 27 years. Forty months later she developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the right clavicle and another primary left breast cancer. Molecular testing of mutations 185delAG, 5382insC in BRCA1 gene and 6174delT in BRCA2 gene was performed using multiplex PCR and separation on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. TP53 molecular analysis was performed by PCR-SSCP analysis of the whole coding region of the TP53. Exon 8 PCR products were sequenced using an ABI dye terminator kit and examined on an ABI 3100 automated sequencer.
Results: Molecular testing of peripheral blood DNA did not reveal mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. A novel germline TP53 mutation, c.G841C, p.D281N, was identified. The detected mutation is a missense substitution, c.G841C, resulting in the substitution of the amino acid aspartate to asparagine, p.D281N. Molecular analysis in her parents showed that neither of them carried the mutation.
Conclusions: We describe a novel 'de novo'TP53 mutation and discuss the importance of molecular testing in early-onset breast cancer patients and its effect on the management and outcome of the disease.