The eukaryotic N-end rule pathway mediates ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent turnover of proteins with a bulky amino-terminal residue. Arabidopsis locus At5g02310 shows significant similarity to the yeast N-end rule ligase Ubr1. We demonstrate that At5g02310 is a ubiquitin ligase and mediates degradation of proteins with amino-terminal Arg residue. Unlike Ubr1, the Arabidopsis protein does not participate in degradation of proteins with amino-terminal Phe or Leu. This modified target specificity coincides with characteristic differences in domain structure. In contrast to previous publications, our data indicate that At5g02310 is not identical to CER3, a gene involved in establishment of a protective surface wax layer. At5g02310 has therefore been re-designated PROTEOLYSIS 6 (PRT6), in accordance with its ubiquitin ligase function.