Small noncoding RNAs have been discovered at a staggering rate in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. Most of the sRNAs of known function regulate gene expression by binding to specific mRNAs or proteins. Given the scores of sRNAs of unknown function, the identification of their cellular targets has become urgent. Here, we review the diverse strategies that have been used to identify and validate bacterial sRNA targets. These include the pulse-expression of sRNAs followed by global transcriptome analysis (microarrays), new biocomputational prediction algorithms, and novel gfp reporter gene fusions to validate candidate target gene regulation.