Oral grape seed extract inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in TRAMP mice

Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5976-82. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0295.


Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results showed a significant reduction (46%, P < 0.01) in the weight of genitourinary tract organs in the GSE-fed mice. The GSE-fed group of mice had a higher incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia but showed strong reduction in the incidence of adenocarcinoma compared with mice in control group. Prostate tissue from the GSE group showed approximately 50% (P < 0.001) decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and 64% (P < 0.01) reduction in total PCNA protein level compared with the control group; however, GSE increased apoptotic cells by 8-fold. Furthermore, GSE strongly decreased the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin A, and cyclin E by 84% (P < 0.05), 96% (P < 0.05), and 89% (P < 0.001), respectively. The protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 6 and Cdc2 was also decreased by more than 90% (P < 0.05) in the prostate from the GSE-fed group. Together, for the first time, we identified that oral GSE inhibits prostate cancer growth and progression in TRAMP mice, which could be mediated via a strong suppression of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control*
  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / drug effects
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism
  • Cyclins / drug effects
  • Cyclins / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / drug effects
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cyclins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases