We analyzed the immunologic impact of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2), a small single-stranded parvovirus with tumorsuppressive properties, on DSL6A pancreatic carcinoma in syngeneic rats. Established tumors of animals treated with AAV-2 or mock infected were resected (Ro), and DSL6A cells were rechallenged on the different site. Eleven (92%) of 12 mock-infected animals but only 3 (25%) of 12 AAV-2-treated animals redeveloped tumors. Adeno-associated virus type 2 infection provoked systemic raises in monocytes and neutrophils numbers and in levels of the proinflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 10. Adeno-associated virus type 2-treated tumors were infiltrated with monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, CD4+ T cells, and especially CD8+ T cells. In cytotoxicity assays, AAV-2-infected DSL6A tumor cells were recognized by lymphocytes from AAV-2-treated animals and from controls. Yet, uninfected DSL6A cells were exclusively killed by lymphocytes from AAV-2-treated animals. Additionally, those lymphocytes displayed high natural killer cell activity but failed to attack unrelated tumor targets. Taken together, these results suggest that the antiviral response toward AAV-2 cross-activates the immune system toward simultaneously present tumor disease. This and the known potential to significantly reduce toxic side effects of chemotherapy make nonpathogenic viruses such as AAV-2 as "1-agent combination therapy" to an interesting treatment option of residual tumor disease.