Description: Update of 2001 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations about screening sexually active adolescents and adults for chlamydial infection.
Methods: The USPSTF weighed the benefits (improved fertility, pregnancy outcomes, and infection transmission) and harms (anxiety, relationship problems, and unnecessary treatment of false-positive results) of chlamydial screening identified in their 2001 recommendations and the accompanying systematic review of English-language articles published between July 2000 and July 2005.
Recommendations: Screen for chlamydial infection in all sexually active nonpregnant young women age 24 years or younger and for older nonpregnant women who are at increased risk. (A recommendation) Screen for chlamydial infection in all pregnant women age 24 years or younger and in older pregnant women who are at increased risk. (B recommendation) Do not routinely screen for chlamydial infection in women age 25 years or older, regardless of whether they are pregnant, if they are not at increased risk. (C recommendation) Current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydial infection for men. (I statement).