We reviewed the ocular findings in patients with cranial stenosis, who were seen in the Craniofacial Clinic at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, to determine the prevalence, pattern, and etiology of visual loss. There were 15 patients with Apert syndrome, 25 patients with Crouzon syndrome, and 18 patients with other forms of craniofacial synostoses. Visual loss occurred in 17 eyes of 11 patients with Apert syndrome, 14 eyes of 11 patients with Crouzon syndrome, and 12 eyes of 8 patients with other craniofacial synostosis syndromes. Refractive errors and strabismus were present in the majority of these patients. Amblyopia due to strabismus, ametropia, or ptosis was the major reason for visual loss in all three groups of patients. Structural abnormalities contributed to loss of vision in six eyes.