Objective: Our aim was to identify sub-groups of right ventricular outflow tract morphology that would be suitable for percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation and to document their prevalence in our patient population.
Materials and methods: Eighty-three consecutive patients with right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction (5-41 years, 76% tetralogy of Fallot) referred to our center for cardiovascular magnetic resonance were studied. A morphological classification was created according to visual assessment of three-dimensional reconstructions and detailed measurement. Diagnosis, right ventricular outflow tract type, surgical history and treatment outcomes were documented.
Results: Right ventricular outflow tract morphology was heterogeneous; nevertheless, 5 patterns were visually identified. Type I, a pyramidal morphology, was most prevalent (49%) and related to the presence of a transannular patch. Other types (II-V) were seen more commonly in patients with conduits. Two patients had unclassifiable morphology. Ninety-five percent of patients were assigned to the correct morphological classification by visual assessment alone. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation was performed successfully in 10 patients with Type II-V morphology and in 1 patient with unclassifiable morphology. Percutaneous implantation was not performed in patients with Type I morphology. Only right ventricular outflow tract diameters < 22 mm in diameter were suitable for the current device.
Conclusions: We have created a morphological classification of the RVOT in patients referred for assessment of RVOT dysfunction. Though only 13% of our patients underwent percutaneous implantation, > 50% of outflow tract morphologies may be suitable for this approach, in particular with the development of new devices appropriate for larger outflow.