Genome-wide linkage scan for nicotine dependence in European Americans and its converging results with African Americans in the Mid-South Tobacco Family sample

Mol Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;13(4):407-16. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2007 Jun 19.


Previously, we reported a genome-wide scan for nicotine dependence (ND) in the African American (AA) sample of the Mid-South Tobacco Family (MSTF) cohort. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide scan in 629 individuals representing 200 nuclear families of European American (EA) origin of the MSTF cohort with the goals of identifying vulnerability loci for ND in the EAs and determining converging regions across the ethnic groups. We examined 385 autosomal microsatellite markers for ND, which was assessed by smoking quantity (SQ), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) and the Fagerström test for ND (FTND). After performing linkage analyses using various methods implemented in the GENEHUNTER and SAGE programs, we found eight regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 9-12, 17 and 18 that met the criteria for suggestive linkage to at least one ND measure in the EA sample. Of these, the region on chromosome 4 at 43 cM showed suggestive linkage to indexed SQ, the HSI and the FTND, and the region on chromosome 9 at 24 cM showed suggestive linkage to the HSI and the FTND. To increase detection power, we analyzed a combined AA and EA sample using age, gender and ethnicity as covariates and found that the region on chromosome 12 near marker D12S372 showed significant linkage to SQ. Additionally, we found six regions on chromosomes 9-11, 13 and 18 that showed suggestive linkage to at least one ND measure in the combined sample. When we compared the linkage peaks detected for ND among the two samples and a combined sample, we found that four regions on chromosomes 9 (two regions), 11 and 18 overlapped. On the other hand, we identified five regions on chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 12 and 17 that showed linkage to ND only in the EA sample, and two regions on chromosomes 10 and 13 that showed linkage to ND only in the AA sample. For those linkages identified in only one sample, we found that the combined analysis of AA plus EA samples actually decreased the linkage signal. This indicates that some chromosomal regions may be more homogenous than others across the ethnic samples. All regions except for the one on chromosome 12 have been detected at nominally significant levels in other studies, providing independent replication of ND loci in different populations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Black or African American
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cohort Studies
  • Family Health*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genome, Human*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Linkage Disequilibrium / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / blood
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / genetics*
  • White People