Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults

Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1688-95. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803667. Epub 2007 Jun 19.


Objective: To investigate the independent effect of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese adults using high carbohydrate, fat or protein food stimuli.

Design: Crossover dietary challenge with matched beverage and solid food forms: high carbohydrate (watermelon and watermelon juice); high protein (cheese and milk); high fat (coconut meat and coconut milk). A total of 120 lean (18-23 kg/m(2); N=60) and obese (30-35 kg/m(2); N=60) adults (18-50 years old) with stable body weight. Forty different participants (N=20 lean and 20 obese) were tested with each of the food systems.

Measurements: Appetitive sensations, food palatability and dietary intake.

Results: Regardless of the predominant energy source, the beverage food form elicited a weaker compensatory dietary response than the matched solid food form. Thus, total daily energy intake was significantly higher by 12.4, 19 and 15% on days the beverage forms of the high-carbohydrate, -fat and -protein foods were ingested, respectively. This was due more to a weak effect on satiety than satiation. The obese participants had higher energy intake at the lunch, including the beverage high-protein load, but overall differences between lean and obese participants were small and not systematic.

Conclusion: Food rheology exerts an independent effect on energy intake. Dietary compensation for beverages is weaker than for solid food forms of comparable nutrient content. Thus, they pose a greater risk for promoting positive energy balance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Beverages
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Diet Records
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Energy Intake / drug effects*
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Thinness / physiopathology*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins