This report provides background regarding the Long Term Follow-Up of Patients in the NIDCD/VA Hearing Aid Clinical Trial study and serves as an introduction to the detailed reports that follow in this issue of Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. The authors investigated five- to seven-year benefit/satisfaction in participants from the original NIDCDNA Hearing Aid Clinical Trial. The new study was designed to investigate current use of the original study hearing aids, to compare changes in selected audiological measures, and to assess possible predictors of long-term hearing aid use. The outcome measures included estimates of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, self-reported patterns of hearing aid usage, self-reported estimates of activity limitations and quality-of-life issues, estimates of hearing aid satisfaction, and self-reported hearing aid benefit. Overall, the short-term benefits of hearing aid use observed during the original trial were noted to persist in the long term.