Objectives: To apply the RIFLE criteria "risk," "injury," and "failure" for severity of acute kidney injury to patients admitted to the intensive care unit and to evaluate the significance of other prognostic factors.
Design: Retrospective analysis of the Riyadh Intensive Care Program database.
Setting: Riyadh Intensive Care Unit Program database of 41,972 patients admitted to 22 intensive care units in the United Kingdom and Germany between 1989 and 1999.
Patients: Acute kidney injury as defined by the RIFLE classification occurred in 15,019 (35.8%) patients; 7,207 (17.2%) patients were at risk, 4,613 (11%) had injury, and 3,199 (7.6%) had failure. It was found that 797 (2.3%) patients had end-stage dialysis-dependent renal failure when admitted to an intensive care unit.
Measurements and main results: : Patients with risk, injury, and failure classifications had hospital mortality rates of 20.9%, 45.6%, and 56.8%, respectively, compared with 8.4% among patients without acute kidney injury. Independent risk factors for hospital mortality were age (odds ratio 1.02); Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission to intensive care unit (odds ratio 1.10); presence of preexisting end-stage disease (odds ratio 1.17); mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.52); RIFLE categories risk (odds ratio 1.40), injury (odds ratio 1.96), and failure (odds ratio 1.59); maximum number of failed organs (odds ratio 2.13); admission after emergency surgery (odds ratio 3.08); and nonsurgical admission (odds ratio 3.92). Renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury was not an independent risk factor for hospital mortality.
Conclusions: The RIFLE classification was suitable for the definition of acute kidney injury in intensive care units. There was an association between acute kidney injury and hospital outcome, but associated organ failure, nonsurgical admission, and admission after emergency surgery had a greater impact on prognosis than severity of acute kidney injury.