The G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GRP40) is a transmembrane receptor for free fatty acids, and is known for its relation to insulin secretion in the pancreas. Recent studies demonstrated that spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation of rodents and cognitive function of humans are improved by a dietary supplementation with arachidonic and/or docosahexaenoic acids, which are possible ligands for GPR40. While free fatty acid effects on the brain might be related to GPR40 activation, the role of GPR40 in the central nervous system (CNS) is at present not known. Here, we studied expression and distribution of GPR40 in CNS of adult monkeys by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting analysis showed a band of approximately 31 kDa consistent with the size of GPR40 protein. GPR40 immunoreactivity of was observed in the nuclei and/or perikarya of a wide variety of neurons including neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, cerebellum, spinal cord. In addition, astrocytes of the cerebral white matter, the molecular layer and multiform layer of the cerebral cortex, the subventricular zone along the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus showed GPR40 immunoreactivity. The present data first provide a morphological basis for clarifying the role of GPR40 in the primate CNS.