Cancer research in recent years has immensely benefited from the development of novel technologies that enable scientists to perform detailed investigations of genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes. This has invariably furthered knowledge of tumorigenesis and etiology of cancer. The resulting information can, in the foreseeable future, effect a significant change in the pace of cancer research, thereby producing improvements in patient care. Ovarian cancer in particular has received the interest of the scientific community, being the most frequent cause of death from gynecological cancers, characterized by few early symptoms, diagnosis at an advanced stage, as well as poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is a malignancy in which normal ovarian cells begin to grow in an uncontrolled, abnormal manner and produce tumors in one or both ovaries. Epithelial cancers, the most common ovarian cancers (>80%), develop from cells lining the ovarian surface. Most ovarian cancer research is primarily focused on the early detection and treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, the more common ovarian malignancy. This review offers an introduction to ovarian cancer, with particular emphasis on human epithelial ovarian cancer. Current methods of detection and therapy are discussed. A survey of promising new protein, gene, and metabolite biomarkers on the horizon is provided. Future prospects for improved diagnosis are offered.