The clinical hallmark of neuroblastoma is heterogeneity, with the likelihood of cure varying widely according to age at diagnosis, extent of disease, and tumour biology. A subset of tumours will undergo spontaneous regression while others show relentless progression. Around half of all cases are currently classified as high-risk for disease relapse, with overall survival rates less than 40% despite intensive multimodal therapy. This Seminar focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the biology of this complex paediatric solid tumour. We outline plans for the development of a uniform International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system, and summarise strategies for risk-based therapies. We also update readers on new discoveries related to the underlying molecular pathogenesis of this tumour, with special emphasis on advances that are translatable to the clinic. Finally, we discuss new approaches to treatment, including recently discovered molecular targets that might provide more effective treatment strategies with the potential for less toxicity.