Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon

Matern Child Health J. 2008 May;12(3):298-307. doi: 10.1007/s10995-007-0242-z. Epub 2007 Jun 21.


Objectives: This study assessed the factors related to smoking during pregnancy in two areas in Lebanon, and the association of smoking to selected maternal and newborn health related factors.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data on 538 women who delivered in nine hospitals in two areas in Lebanon. Women were interviewed about their smoking practices, and on demographic and psychosocial variables. 396 women were followed up and re-interviewed about their smoking status, and the mother's and baby's health after delivery. Smoking during pregnancy included both cigarettes and narghile smoking.

Results: About 25.7% of women were smoking some kind of tobacco during pregnancy. Older women, Muslim women, women with poor education, those who had financial difficulty, nervousness, lower support, and delay in seeking prenatal care were more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have a low birth weight baby and to stop breastfeeding.

Conclusions: It is important to address smoking among women in general, and not only during pregnancy. We discuss the role of public and private sectors in smoking cessation and interventions.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Demography
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Lebanon
  • Maternal Welfare*
  • Perinatal Care*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology