Objective: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
Design: A cross-sectional study in a tertiary-care university hospital conducted in 516 consecutive outpatients.
Intervention: A systematic examination for macroscopic HPV-related lesions through anoscopy with histological confirmation, evaluation of dysplasia and HPV typing. Sexual behaviours were assessed using a semi-directive questionnaire.
Results: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization. Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia. Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77). The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
Conclusion: The high rate of condyloma and histological dysplasia seen argues for a systematic screening for these lesions in HIV-infected individuals.