We investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNA) 17-5p, 20a and 106a in monocytic differentiation and maturation. In unilineage monocytic culture generated by haematopoietic progenitor cells these miRNAs are downregulated, whereas the transcription factor acute myeloid leukaemia-1 (AML1; also known as Runt-related transcription factor 1, Runx1) is upregulated at protein but not mRNA level. As miRNAs 17-5p, 20a and 106a bind the AML1 mRNA 3'UTR, their decline may unblock AML1 translation. Accordingly, transfection with miRNA 17-5p-20a-106a suppresses AML1 protein expression, leading to M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) downregulation, enhanced blast proliferation and inhibition of monocytic differentiation and maturation. Treatment with anti-miRNA 17-5p, 20a and 106a causes opposite effects. Knockdown of AML1 or M-CSFR by short interfering RNA (siRNA) mimics the action of the miRNA 17-5p-20a-106a, confirming that these miRNAs target AML1, which promotes M-CSFR transcription. In addition, AML1 binds the miRNA 17-5p-92 and 106a-92 cluster promoters and transcriptionally inhibits the expression of miRNA 17-5p-20a-106a. These studies indicate that monocytopoiesis is controlled by a circuitry involving sequentially miRNA 17-5p-20a-106a, AML1 and M-CSFR, whereby miRNA 17-5p-20a-106a function as a master gene complex interlinked with AML1 in a mutual negative feedback loop.