A tiered testing strategy has been employed to evaluate the potential of tobacco processes, ingredients, or technological developments to change the biological activity resulting from burning cigarette tobacco. The strategy is based on comparative chemical and biological testing. The introduction of banded cigarette papers in cigarettes to meet New York state "Fire Safety Standards for Cigarettes" constitutes an example of a technological development evaluated utilizing this tiered testing strategy that included a comparison of the chemical and biological effects of cigarettes with and without the banded cigarette paper technologies (BCPT) (representative of current marketed technologies). Specific testing included mainstream cigarette smoke chemistry studies; in vitro studies included genotoxicity (Ames and sister chromatid exchange) and cytotoxicity studies (neutral red); in vivo studies included a 13-week inhalation study in Sprague-Dawley rats and a 30-week dermal tumor promotion study in SENCAR mice. Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without BCPT had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery.