Unusual coordinating behavior by three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from the oxicam family towards copper(II). Synthesis, X-ray structure for copper(II)-isoxicam, -meloxicam and -cinnoxicam-derivative complexes, and cytotoxic activity for a copper(II)-piroxicam complex

J Inorg Biochem. 2007 Aug;101(8):1140-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.04.015. Epub 2007 May 10.


Cytotoxic tests recently performed at National Cancer Institute, NCI (USA), on [Cu(HPIR)(2)(DMF)(2)], 1, (H(2)PIR=piroxicam, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-pyridin-2-yl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID [see R. Cini, G. Giorgi, A. Cinquantini, C. Rossi, M. Sabat, Inorg. Chem. 29 (1990) 5197-5200, for synthesis and structural characterization, DMF=dimethylformamide] (NSC #624662) by using a panel of ca. 50 human cancer cells, showed growth inhibition factor GI(50) values as low as 20microM against several cancer lines, with an average value 54.4microM. The activity of 1 is larger against ovarian cancer cells, non-small lung cancer cells, melanoma cancer cells, and central nervous system cancer cells. The widely used anticancer drug carboplatin (cis-diammine(1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato)platinum(II)) (NSC #241240) has average GI(50) value of 102microM. The reactions of copper(II)-acetate with other NSAIDs from the oxicam family were tested and crystalline complexes were obtained and characterized. Isoxicam (H(2)ISO=4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) produced [Cu(HISO)(2)].0.5DMF, 2.0.5DMF (DMF=dimethylfomamide). The coordination arrangement is square-planar and the HISO(-) anions behave as ambi-dentate chelators via O(amide),N(isoxazole) and O(enolate),O(amide) donors. Meloxicam (H(2)MEL=4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) produced [Cu(HMEL)(2)(DMF)].0.25H(2)O, 3.0.25H(2)O. The coordination arrangement is square-pyramidal, the equatorial donors being O(amide),N(thiazole) from two HMEL(-) anions and the apical donor being O(DMF). Unexpectedly, cinnoxicam (HCIN=2-methyl-1,1-dioxido-3-[(pyridin-2-ylamino)carbonyl]-2H-1,2-benzothiazin-4-yl-(3-phenylacrylate)) produced [Cu(MBT)(2)(PPA)(2)] (MBT=3-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-methyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazin-4-olate 1,1-dioxide, PPA=3-phenyl-N-pyridin-2-ylacrylamide).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / toxicity
  • Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Copper / chemistry*
  • Copper / toxicity
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / toxicity
  • Growth Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Growth Inhibitors / toxicity*
  • Humans
  • Meloxicam
  • Piroxicam / analogs & derivatives*
  • Piroxicam / chemical synthesis*
  • Piroxicam / toxicity
  • Thiazines / chemical synthesis
  • Thiazoles / chemical synthesis


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Growth Inhibitors
  • Thiazines
  • Thiazoles
  • Piroxicam
  • Copper
  • piroxicam cinnamate
  • isoxicam
  • Meloxicam