Background: Glycoprotein II b/IIIa antagonists (GPII b/IIIa-A) lower the periprocedural rate of ischemic events during high risk percutaneous coronary interventions. Their clinical impact on carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains to be determined.
Methods: We analyzed data from the Carotid Artery Stent (CAS) Registry.
Results: From 01/ 2000 to 06/2005 1322 CAS interventions were registered. In 94 (7.1%) procedures a GPII b/IIIa-A was used: abciximab in 8 cases (8.6%), tirofiban in 53 cases (57%) and eptifibatide in 32 cases (34.4%). The use of a GPII b/IIIa-A during CAS decreased significantly over time: from 17.6% in 2000 to 3% in 2005, p for trend <0.0001. The mean use of a GPII b/IIIa-A at the hospitals was 5.2%. More than 50% of the hospitals never used a GPII b/IIIa-A. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and concomitant diseases in CAS patients treated with GPII b/IIIa-A compared to those without GPII b/IIIa-A. A bilateral intervention was performed more often in patients treated with GPII b/IIIa-A (2.1 vs 0.2%, p = 0.04), a thrombus was more often visible (27 vs 12.4%, p <0.001) and an ulcer more frequently diagnosed (50 vs 37.5%, p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the combined death or stroke rate between the two groups (5.3 vs 3.0%, p = 0.22, OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.69-4.72), which was confirmed by logistic regression analysis after adjusting for possible confounders (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 0.62-4.46, p = 0.31).
Conclusions: Our data neither demonstrate a significant benefit nor a significant risk with the use of GPIIb/IIIa-A during CAS. However, only an adequately sized randomized controlled clinical trial could establish the real value of GPII b/IIIa-A during CAS. Until then, considering the potential increase in cerebral hemorrhage, we should not use GPII b/ IIIa-A routinely during CAS.