CD1 proteins present self and microbial glycolipids to CD 1-restricted T cells, or in the case of CD1d, to NKT cells. The CD1 family in humans consists of group I proteins CDla, CDlb, CDlc, and CDle and the group II protein CDld. Rodents express only CDld, but as CD1d is broadly expressed and traffics to all endosomal compartments, this single CD1 family member is thereby able to acquire antigens in many subcellular compartments. A complete understanding of the CD 1 family requires an appreciation of which cells express CD1 and how CD1 contributes to the unique function of each cell type. While group I CD 1 expression is limited to thymocytes and professional APCs, CD1d has a wider tissue distribution and can be found on many nonhematopoietic cells. The expression and regulation of CD1 are presented here with particular emphasis on the function of CD1 in thymocytes, B cells, monocytes and macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Altered expression of CD 1 in cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious disease is well documented, and the implication of CD 1 expression in these diseases is discussed.