As the conflict in Iraq continues, public health authorities in the United States anticipate that many returning soldiers will suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Initially, most of these veterans are likely to consult their primary care physicians about health problems. However, the diagnosis of PTSD is often missed in primary care settings. The author encourages physicians to become better prepared to recognize this disorder in their patients and initiate proper treatment or appropriate referral. Current diagnostic approaches and treatment modalities for combat-related PTSD are reviewed-with an emphasis on clinical procedures for the primary care physician.