Serum and CSF levels of cytokines in acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures

Brain Dev. 2008 Jan;30(1):47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2007.05.008. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Abstract

It is well known that an acute encephalopathy occasionally follows prolonged febrile seizures. We measured the concentrations of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in serum and CSF during the acute stage in 13 children with acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures (AEPFS) and 23 with prolonged febrile seizures without encephalopathy (PFS) to investigate the pathogenesis of AEPFS. Serum IL-6, IL-10, sTNFR1, and CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher in AEPFS and PFS compared with control subjects. CSF IL-6 levels in AEPFS were significantly higher than those in PFS, but not serum IL-6, IL-10, or sTNFR1. The CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher than the serum levels in AEPFS, but not PFS. The serum levels of sTNFR1 and IL-10 were significantly higher than those in the CSF in AEPFS and PFS. The serum IL-10 and sTNFR1 levels in patients who did not experience a second seizure were significantly higher than those in patients who experienced a second seizure, which was characterized by clusters of complex partial seizures several days after the initial prolonged febrile seizure. Our results suggest that serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and CSF IL-6 are part of the regulatory system of cytokines in AEPFS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Brain / immunology
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic / blood
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Brain Diseases, Metabolic / immunology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Cytokines / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / blood
  • Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / immunology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Interleukin-10 / analysis
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Interleukin-10 / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Interleukin-6 / analysis
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Interleukins / analysis
  • Interleukins / blood
  • Interleukins / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / immunology
  • Seizures, Febrile / complications*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Up-Regulation / immunology

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukins
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10