Gender nonconformity, homophobia, and mental distress in latino gay and bisexual men

J Sex Res. 2007 May;44(2):181-9. doi: 10.1080/00224490701263819.


This study explored whether gender nonconformity in gay and bisexual men is related to mental distress and if so, whether this relationship is mediated by negative experiences that are likely associated with gender nonconformity, including abuse and harassment. To study this question, data were analyzed from face-to face interviews with 912 self-identified gay and bisexual Latino men in three major U.S. cities collected by Diaz and colleagues (2001). Gay and bisexual Latino men who considered themselves to be effeminate had higher levels of mental distress and more frequently reported various negative experiences, compared with gay and bisexual Latino men who did not identify as effeminate. Higher levels of mental distress in effeminate men seemed to primarily result from more experiences of homophobia. Findings suggest the need for more attention to gender in research as well as counseling of sexual minority men.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bisexuality / ethnology*
  • Bisexuality / psychology
  • Bisexuality / statistics & numerical data
  • Health Behavior
  • Hispanic Americans / psychology*
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Homosexuality, Male / ethnology*
  • Homosexuality, Male / psychology
  • Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prejudice
  • Self Concept
  • Social Conformity*
  • Social Identification*
  • Social Support
  • Stress, Psychological / epidemiology
  • Stress, Psychological / ethnology*
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Urban Population