Social factors, psychopathology, and maternal smoking during pregnancy

Am J Public Health. 2008 Mar;98(3):448-53. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.102772. Epub 2007 Jun 28.


We investigated the relative importance of sociodemographic factors and psychiatric disorders for smoking among 453 pregnant women in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Women with less than a high school education and those with current-year nicotine dependence had the highest risk of smoking (90.5%), compared with women with a college degree and without nicotine dependence (3.9%). More effective and accessible interventions for nicotine dependence among pregnant smokers are needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Behavior*
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Maternal Welfare*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk-Taking*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Social Environment*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Nicotine