Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions among young adolescents as a predictor of established smoking in young adulthood

Am J Public Health. 2007 Aug;97(8):1489-95. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.070359. Epub 2007 Jun 28.


Objectives: We investigated whether receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions during young adolescence predicts young adult smoking 6 years later.

Methods: Two longitudinal cohorts of adolescents drawn from the 1993 and 1996 versions of the California Tobacco Surveys were followed 3 and 6 years later. At baseline, adolescents were aged 12 to 15 years and were not established smokers. The outcome measure was established smoking at final follow-up. Receptivity to cigarette advertising and promotions was included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis along with demographic and other variables.

Results: The rate of established smoking at follow-up was significantly greater among members of the 1993 through 1999 cohort (21.0%) than among members of the 1996 through 2002 cohort (15.6%). However, in both cohorts, having a favorite cigarette advertisement and owning or being willing to use a tobacco promotional item showed nearly identical adjusted odds of future adult smoking (1.46 and 1.84, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite the success of tobacco control efforts in reducing youth smoking, tobacco marketing remains a potent influence on whether young adolescents become established smokers in young adulthood (18-21 years of age).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Advertising*
  • California / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Psychology, Adolescent*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Prevention