The only known risk factor for sporadic acoustic neuroma is high-dose ionising radiation. Environmental exposures, such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and noise are under discussion, as well as an association with allergic diseases. We performed a population-based case-control study in Germany investigating these risk factors in 97 cases with acoustic neuroma, aged 30 to 69 years, and in 194 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multiple logistic regression models. Increased risks were found for exposure to persistent noise (OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.15-4.66), and for hay fever (OR=2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.45), but not for ionising radiation (OR=0.91; 95 % CI 0.51-1.61) or regular mobile phone use (OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38-1.19). The study confirms results of recently published studies, although the pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown.