Role of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes in the development of hypogonadal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model: possible phytoestrogenic efficacy of oil extract of garlic to preserve skeletal health

Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1045-54. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2209.


This study was to examine whether skeletal health deterioration in the hypogonadal situation is a consequence of an alteration in the functional status of peripheral mononuclear cells and its amelioration, if any, by an oil extract of garlic. The results suggest that hypogonadism-induced oxidative stress of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes could be reduced by supplementation with an oil extract of garlic. However, estrogen deficiency did not cause any significant change in DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages. The hypogonadism-induced increase in the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by an oil extract of garlic. Further, such supplementation could revive the hypogonadism-induced decrease in serum estrogen titer and counter-balance the increase in bone turnover as determined by low bone tensile strength and alterations in bone related biochemical variables such as urinary calcium, hydroxyproline, calcium to creatinine ratio and serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAP). The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery of the serum estrogen titer in hypogonadal rats was found to be persistently associated with reduced oxidative stress of peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, reduced serum interleukins and better preservation of bone mass. This study proposes that the hypogonadism-induced bone loss has a direct correlation with the functional status of lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and garlic can prevent this.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / blood
  • Allyl Compounds / isolation & purification
  • Allyl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • DNA Fragmentation
  • Disulfides / isolation & purification
  • Disulfides / therapeutic use
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Female
  • Femur / pathology
  • Garlic* / chemistry
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Lipid Peroxidation / physiology
  • Lymphocytes / enzymology
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / enzymology
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / metabolism
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / physiology*
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • Osteoporosis / immunology*
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism
  • Osteoporosis / pathology
  • Ovariectomy
  • Phytoestrogens / therapeutic use*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood


  • Allyl Compounds
  • Disulfides
  • Interleukin-6
  • Nitrites
  • Phytoestrogens
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Estradiol
  • diallyl disulfide
  • Catalase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Acid Phosphatase