The impact of thiazolidinedione use on outcomes in ambulatory patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 3;50(1):32-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.096. Epub 2007 Jun 18.


Objectives: This study sought to examine the relationship between thiazolidinedione (TZD) use and outcomes in ambulatory patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF).

Background: Thiazolidinediones have been relatively contraindicated in diabetic patients with HF.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of a national cohort of veterans with HF and diabetes treated in ambulatory clinics at Veterans Affairs medical centers. Patients were classified into those using TZDs and those not using insulin-sensitizing medication based on prescriptions filled 90 days before or 30 days after the index outpatient visit. The outcomes were time to hospitalization for HF and time to death.

Results: Of 7,147 ambulatory HF patients receiving diabetic therapy, 818 (11.4%) were receiving a TZD and 4,700 (65.8%) were not receiving insulin sensitizers. Over 2 years of follow-up, 134 (16.4%) patients receiving TZDs and 741 (15.8%) patients not receiving insulin-sensitizing medications required HF hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.24, p = 0.97). A total of 168 (20.5%) patients receiving TZDs and 1,192 (25.4%) patients not receiving insulin-sensitizing medications died (adjusted hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.17, p = 0.80).

Conclusions: In ambulatory patients with established HF and diabetes, the use of TZDs was not associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization or total mortality when compared with those not receiving insulin-sensitizing medications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Ambulatory Care
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / mortality*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Heart Failure / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Reference Values
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Survival Analysis
  • Thiazolidinediones / adverse effects
  • Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • 2,4-thiazolidinedione