Introduction: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HypoFXSRT) has recently been used for the treatment of small lung tumors. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome of HypoFXSRT for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in a Japanese multi-institutional study.
Methods: This is a retrospective study to review 257 patients with stage I NSCLC (median age, 74 years: 164 T1N0M0, 93 T2N0M0) were treated with HypoFXSRT alone at 14 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. A total dose of 18 to 75 Gy at the isocenter was administered in one to 22 fractions. The median calculated biological effective dose (BED) was 111 Gy (range, 57-180 Gy) based on alpha/beta = 10.
Results: During follow-up (median, 38 months), pulmonary complications of above grade 2 arose in 14 patients (5.4%). Local progression occurred in 36 patients (14.0%), and the local recurrence rate was 8.4% for a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with 42.9% for less than 100 Gy (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate of medically operable patients was 70.8% among those treated with a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with 30.2% among those treated with less than 100 Gy (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Although this is a retrospective study, HypoFXSRT with a BED of less than 180 Gy was almost safe for stage I NSCLC, and the local control and overall survival rates in 5 years with a BED of 100 Gy or more were superior to the reported results for conventional radiotherapy. For all treatment methods and schedules, the local control and survival rates were better with a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with less than 100 Gy. HypoFXSRT is feasible for curative treatment of patients with stage I NSCLC.