A new microscope combines optical sectioning by fluorophore excitation using a single light sheet with structured illumination. Several images with laterally intensity-modulated light sheets are recorded from scattering fluorescent specimens. By applying a simple data processing scheme, the nonmodulated volumes are identified. The blurred features become dark, and the resultant images are improved in terms of contrast and resolution. Hence, the instrument is capable of discriminating against contributions to the image that are induced by the optical properties of the specimen. The new microscope's capabilities are demonstrated by imaging the internals of the head of an adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) expressing green fluorescent protein-labeled polycomb proteins.