The origin of antibodies to ganglioside complexes, as new immunotargets for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is unknown. This was investigated in 21 GBS patients from which Campylobacter jejuni was isolated. Two of these patients had serum IgG to the GM1/GD1a complex and two other patients had IgG to the GQ1b/GD1a complex. These pairs of patients were clinically distinct. These antibodies all cross-reacted to lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) from the autologous C. jejuni strain. Previous mass spectrometry studies on these LOS showed the presence of oligosaccharides with a similar structure, further supporting the hypothesis that in these patients LOS induced the ganglioside complex antibodies.