Citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica cultivated on olive-mill wastewater-based media

Bioresour Technol. 2008 May;99(7):2419-28. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.005. Epub 2007 Jul 2.


Yarrowia lipolytica ACA-DC 50109 cultivated on olive-mill wastewater (O.M.W.)-based media, enriched with commercial-industrial glucose, presented an efficient cell growth. Parameters of growth were unaffected by the presence of O.M.Ws in the growth medium. In diluted O.M.Ws enriched with high glucose amounts (initial sugar concentration, 65 g l(-1)), a notable quantity of total citric acid was produced (28.9 g l(-1)). O.M.W.-based media had a noteworthy stimulating effect on the production of citric acid, since both final citric acid concentration and conversion yield of citric acid produced per unit of sugar consumed were higher when compared with the respective parameters obtained from trials without added O.M.W. Adaptation of the strain in O.M.W.-based media favoured the biosynthesis of cellular unsaturated fatty acids (principally of oleic and palmitoleic acids). Additionally, a non-negligible decrease of the phenolic compounds in the growth medium [up to 15% (wt/wt)], a slight decrease of the phyto-toxicity, and a remarkable decolourisation of the O.M.W. were observed. All these results suggest the potentiality of O.M.Ws utilisation in the fermentation process of citric acid production.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Citric Acid / metabolism*
  • Culture Media
  • Industrial Waste*
  • Olive Oil
  • Plant Oils*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical*
  • Yarrowia / metabolism*


  • Culture Media
  • Industrial Waste
  • Olive Oil
  • Plant Oils
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Citric Acid