The prevalence of obesity worldwide has increased dramatically. Besides, an approximately two-fold higher rate of increase in mean BMI among the incident ESRD has been reported in the US population from 1995-2002. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence increases from 2.9% among adults with an ideal BMI to 4.5% among obese adults. The development of CKD is usually the culminating result of the interaction of multiple risk factors. Obesity represents one example of a multitoxicity state and given the background of genetic susceptibility and/or reduced nephron number, overweight may initiate renal remodeling and/or accelerate kidney failure. Obesity may be the number one preventable risk factor for CKD. Weight loss has indeed been shown to improve glomerular hemodynamics and reduce urine albumin excretion. Thus, obese patients with CKD should be counseled on the benefits of weight loss.