An inducible mouse model for skin cancer reveals distinct roles for gain- and loss-of-function p53 mutations

J Clin Invest. 2007 Jul;117(7):1893-901. doi: 10.1172/JCI31721.


Mutations in ras and p53 are the most prevalent mutations found in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Although some p53 mutations cause a loss of function, most result in expression of altered forms of p53, which may exhibit gain-of-function properties. Therefore, understanding the consequences of acquiring p53 gain-of-function versus loss-of-function mutations is critical for the generation of effective therapies for tumors harboring p53 mutations. Here we describe an inducible mouse model in which skin tumor formation is initiated by activation of an endogenous K-ras(G12D) allele. Using this model we compared the consequences of activating the p53 gain-of-function mutation p53(R172H) and of deleting the p53 gene. Activation of the p53(R172H) allele resulted in increased skin tumor formation, accelerated tumor progression, and induction of metastasis compared with deletion of p53. Consistent with these observations, the p53(R172H) tumors exhibited aneuploidy associated with centrosome amplification, which may underlie the mechanism by which p53(R172H) exerts its oncogenic properties. These results clearly demonstrate that p53 gain-of-function mutations confer poorer prognosis than loss of p53 during skin carcinogenesis and have important implications for the future design of therapies for tumors that exhibit p53 gain-of-function mutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Aneuploidy
  • Animals
  • Arginine / genetics
  • Arginine / metabolism
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • Centrosome
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Glycine / genetics
  • Glycine / metabolism
  • Lung Neoplasms / genetics
  • Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism*
  • ras Proteins / genetics
  • ras Proteins / metabolism


  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Arginine
  • ras Proteins
  • Glycine