Correlation between vitamin D3 deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy

Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Jan-Feb 2008;24(1):27-32. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.737.


Background: The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency has long been suspected as a risk factor for glucose intolerance and perhaps 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has a role in the regulation of insulin secretion. This study investigates the relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 741 pregnant women referred to five educating hospital clinics. Universal screening was performed with a GCT-50 g, and those with plasma glucose levels > pr = 7.2 mmol/L were diagnosed as GDM if they had an impaired GTT-100 g based on Carpenter and Coustan criteria. The levels of insulin and C-peptide were measured during OGTT-100 g test. The homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA) equation was used as the insulin resistance index. The concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and PTH were also measured.

Results: Total prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) was found in 70.6% of pregnant women. Prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<12.5) in GDM patients was higher than in normoglycaemic pregnancies. The regression model revealed a strong correlation between the HOMA index and serum levels of vitamin D.

Conclusions: These results show that a positive correlation of 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations with insulin sensitivity and vitamin D deficiency could be a confirmative sign of insulin resistance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Cholecalciferol / deficiency*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood
  • Diabetes, Gestational / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology*


  • C-Peptide
  • Insulin
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D