Weeks or months following Campylobacter infection, a small proportion of infected individuals develop Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or reactive arthritis (ReA). Stool culture for Campylobacter is often negative in these patients, and serology is therefore the method of choice for diagnosing a recent infection with Campylobacter. This study developed a capture ELISA system to detect anti-Campylobacter IgA and IgM antibodies indicative of a recent infection. The sensitivity of the assay was 82.0% in uncomplicated Campylobacter enteritis patients, 96.2% in GBS patients who were culture-positive for Campylobacter, and 93.1% in culture-positive ReA patients, with a specificity of 93.0%. The assay allows identification of Campylobacter infection in patients with post-infectious neurological and rheumatological complications.