Lymphocyte and monocyte brain infiltration determines inflammation in multiple sclerosis. The trafficking of these cells into the CNS results from the VLA-4 binding with its ligand on brain endothelial cells. MS patients treated with an antibody against the alpha-4 subunit, which inhibits this interaction, prevents brain lesion development. We investigated the association between VLA-4 gene polymorphisms and MS in a study on 275 patients and 255 controls. No differences were detected, thus suggesting that these polymorphisms are not a significant genetic risk factor for susceptibility to MS in Italy.