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. 2007 Sep;293(3):E743-53.
doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00159.2007. Epub 2007 Jul 3.

Load-dependent Effects of Duodenal Glucose on Glycemia, Gastrointestinal Hormones, Antropyloroduodenal Motility, and Energy Intake in Healthy Men

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Load-dependent Effects of Duodenal Glucose on Glycemia, Gastrointestinal Hormones, Antropyloroduodenal Motility, and Energy Intake in Healthy Men

Amelia N Pilichiewicz et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. .
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Abstract

Gastric emptying is a major determinant of glycemia, gastrointestinal hormone release, and appetite. We determined the effects of different intraduodenal glucose loads on glycemia, insulinemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and cholecystokinin (CCK), antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy subjects. Blood glucose, plasma hormone, and antropyloroduodenal motor responses to 120-min intraduodenal infusions of glucose at 1) 1 ("G1"), 2) 2 ("G2"), and 3) 4 ("G4") kcal/min or of 4) saline ("control") were measured in 10 healthy males in double-blind, randomized fashion. Immediately after each infusion, energy intake at a buffet meal was quantified. Blood glucose rose in response to all glucose infusions (P < 0.05 vs. control), with the effect of G4 and G2 being greater than that of G1 (P < 0.05) but with no difference between G2 and G4. The rises in insulin, GLP-1, GIP, and CCK were related to the glucose load (r > 0.82, P < 0.05). All glucose infusions suppressed antral (P < 0.05), but only G4 decreased duodenal, pressure waves (P < 0.01), resulted in a sustained stimulation of basal pyloric pressure (P < 0.01), and decreased energy intake (P < 0.05). In conclusion, variations in duodenal glucose loads have differential effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, GLP-1, GIP and CCK, antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy subjects. These observations have implications for strategies to minimize postprandial glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetes.

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