Effects of cortisol on carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism: studies of acute cortisol withdrawal in adrenocortical failure

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;92(9):3553-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-0445. Epub 2007 Jul 3.


Context: Cortisol is an important catabolic hormone, but little is known about the metabolic effects of acute cortisol deficiency.

Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether clinical symptoms of weight loss, fatigue, and hypoglycemia could be explained by altered energy expenditure, protein metabolism, and insulin sensitivity during cortisol withdrawal in adrenocortical failure.

Design, participants, and intervention: We studied seven women after 24-h cortisol withdrawal and during replacement control during a 3-h basal period and a 3-h glucose clamp.

Results: Cortisol withdrawal generated cortisol levels close to zero, a 10% decrease in basal energy expenditure, increased TSH and T(3) levels, and increased glucose oxidation. Whole-body glucose and phenylalanine turnover were unaltered, but forearm phenylalanine turnover was increased. During the clamp glucose, infusion rates rose by 70%, glucose oxidation rates increased, and endogenous glucose production decreased. Urinary urea excretion decreased by 40% over the 6-h study period.

Conclusions: Cortisol withdrawal increased insulin sensitivity in terms of increased glucose oxidation and decreased endogenous glucose production; this may induce hypoglycemia in adrenocortical failure. Energy expenditure and urea loss decreased, indicating that weight and muscle loss in Addison's disease is caused by other mechanisms, such as decreased appetite. Increased muscle protein breakdown may amplify the loss of muscle protein.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Addison Disease / blood
  • Addison Disease / drug therapy
  • Addison Disease / metabolism
  • Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood
  • Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism*
  • Adult
  • Basal Metabolism / drug effects
  • Calorimetry, Indirect
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects
  • Female
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / deficiency*
  • Hydrocortisone / pharmacology*
  • Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use*
  • Lipid Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Microdialysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Withholding Treatment


  • Proteins
  • Glucose
  • Hydrocortisone